Section of Radiobiology

The Head of the Department: Prof. dr. hab. Mieczysław Puchała

Address: 141/143 Pomorska St., 90-236 Lodz, Building D

Tel: +48 42 635 44 80

Fax/Tel: +48 42 635 44 73 (in the Institute of Biophysics Secretary's Office)



Name and Surname





Prof. Mieczysław Puchała

     (Head of the Department)

+48 42 635 44 80

D/ Bfi 50

Wed. 12:30- 14:00

Dr. Anita Krokosz, Ph.D.

Associate Professor

+48 42 635 44 57

D/ Bfi 10

Thu. 12:00-13:30

Dr. Aleksandra Rodacka, Ph.D.

+48 42 635 44 57

D/ Bfi 10

Mon. 15:00-17:00

Dr. Katarzyna Nowak, Ph.D.

+48 42 635 44 57

D/ Bfi 10

Mon. 11:00-12:30


Ph.D. students:

Name and Surname





Joanna Gerszon, M.Sc.

+48 42 635 44 05


D/ Bfi 12


Joanna Strumiłło, M.Sc.

+48 42 635 44 05

D/ Bfi 12


Anna Lichota, M.Sc.

+48 42 635 44 05

D/ Bfi 12



Main topics:

  1. Carbon nanostructures (fullerenols C60(OH)x), their biological properties and biomedical applications including reduction of adverse effects of ionizing radiation on cells

The main areas of interest are:

  • since fullerenol could bind to erythrocyte transmembrane proteins, it suggests the potential use of fullerenols as the linkers between erythrocytes and different compounds e.g. drugs and fullerenol could be used to diminish the side effects of chemotherapy;
  • thorough understanding of the mechanisms of action of fullerenols may allow it to be used in radiotherapy and chemotherapy for the protection of normal cells and/or as a sensitizer potentiating tumor cell damage;
  • fullerenes represent 30% of all nanoparticles used in cosmetics and are as common as nanosilver so that understanding of the mechanisms of their action in various biological systems would help to plan their scope of application, and regulate their release into the environment;
  • studies on the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems contributed to increased knowledge on its action. Taking into account that ionizing radiation is widely used in human life, in therapy, medical diagnostics, industry and as a source of energy understanding of the mechanism of its action will bring us closer to the explanation of such phenomena as hypersensitivity to low doses of radiation (HRS), or radioresistance gaining;
  1. An investigation of structural parameters determining the resistance of proteins against physicochemical denaturation factors

            The proteins are the main targets of oxidative factors due to their abundance in cells and high reactivity with reactive oxygen species. One of the basic actual problems of protein biophysics is the determination of precise correlation between protein structure and the susceptibility of proteins to damage and aggregation induced by oxidative stress. Based on the conducted experiments and bioinformatics analysis, we intend to find out which structural features of the proteins determine their vulnerability to oxidative damage, and to identify the most effective ways of preventing these processes.

  1. Naturally occurring antioxidants in preventing protein aggregation processes associated with neurodegenerative disorders

            Prevention of neurodegenerative diseases is one of the key challenges facing contemporary science. Despite substantial research in the field, the exact causes and development of these diseases at the molecular level have not been fully elucidated. One of the main causes of these diseases is oxidative stress coupled with a decreased capacity of antioxidative systems, which is noted especially in elderly persons. In the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, of fundamental importance are the processes of protein aggregation induced under oxidative stress.

            The study is designed to determine the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) on the structure and function of proteins (tau protein, α-synuclein and GAPDH) in order to elucidate the mechanisms of aggregation of proteins. Furthermore, the study examines the influence of antioxidants such as melatonin, resveratrol and its derivatives (e.g. ε-viniferin, THMS) on the processes of oxidative damage and aggregation in the investigated proteins.


Specialized equipment:

UV – Visible Spectrophotometers: Cary 1 and Cary 50 with Microplate Reader, Cary Eclipse Fluorescence Spectrophotometer with Automated Polarizers and Micrplate Reader, Laboratory centrifuges, Electrophoresis apparatus Mini – PROTEAN Tetra Cell system‑Bio-Rad, X-ray apparatus Stabilipan 300 (Siemens), Radiation dosimeters: Eco-P and Eco-C, Thermoluminescent dosimeter reader.



  1. National Science Centre, OPUS, 2012/05/B/NZ1/00701 “Studies of the processes of aggregation of GAPDH and other proteins participating in neurodegenerative diseases, induced by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Evaluation of antioxidants in prevention of these processes” (2013-2016), co-ordinator: Prof. Grzegorz Bartosz;
  1. National Science Centre, PRELUDIUM, 2011/03/N/ST4/01281 “Determination of reaction rate constants between highly hydroxylated fullerenol C60(OH)26-33 and water radiolysis products and investigation of the mechanism of fullerenol action on human erythrocytes under oxidative stress generated by irradiation” (2012-2013), co-ordinator: Jacek Grębowski, M.Sc.


Scientific collaboration:

Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz;

Institute of General Food Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz;

Laboratory of Stereochemistry, Centre of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies – Polish Academy of Sciences.



  1. Grebowski J and Krokosz A. (2015) The effect of highly hydroxylated fullerenol C60(OH)36 on human erythrocyte membrane organization. J Spect. vol. 2015, Article ID 825914, 6 pages.
  2. Grebowski J, Krokosz A, Konarska A, Wolszczak M, Puchala M. (2014) Rate constants of highly hydroxylated fullerene C60 interacting with hydroxyl radicals and hydrated electrons. Pulse radiolysis study. Rad Phys Chem. 103, 146-152.
  3. Rodacka A, Gerszon J, Puchała M. [The biological significance of oxidative modifications of cysteine residues in proteins illustrated with the example of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase]. Postepy Hig. Med. Dosw. (Online) (2014) 68, 280-290.
  4. Nowak K, Krokosz A, Rodacka A, Puchala M. Study on the effect of polyhydroxylated fullerene, C60(OH)36, on X-ray irradiated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Rad. Phys. Chem. (2014) 97, 325-331.
  5. Krokosz A, Grebowski J, Rodacka A, Pasternak B, Puchala M. The effect of fullerenol C60(OH)~30 on the alcohol dehydrogenase activity irradiated with X-rays. Rad. Phys. Chem. (2014) 97, 102-106.
  6. Rodacka A, Strumillo J, Serafin E, Puchala M. Effect of Resveratrol and Tiron on The Inactivation of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Induced by Superoxide Anion Radical. Curr Med Chem. (2014) 21(8), 1061-1069.
  7. Grebowski J, Krokosz A, Puchala M. Fullerenol C60(OH)36 could associate to band 3 protein of human erythrocyte membrane. BBA Biomembranes (2013) 1828(9), 2007-2014.
  8. Rodacka A. [Properties and functional diversity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase]. Postepy Hig. Med. Dosw. (Online) (2013) 67, 775-789.
  9. Grebowski J, Kazmierska P, Krokosz A. Fullerenols as a new therapeutic approach in nanomedicine. Biomed. Res. Int. (2013) 2013, 751913.
  10. Grebowski J, Krokosz A, Puchala M. Membrane fluidity and activity of membrane ATPases in human erythrocytes under the influence of polyhydroxylated fullerene, BBA Biomembranes (2013) 1828(2), 241-248.
  11. Grebowski J, Kazmierska P, Krokosz A. [Fullerenol - properties and applications in biomedical sciences]. Postepy Hig Med. Dosw. (Online) (2013) 67, 859-872.
  12. Krokosz A, Grebowski J, Rodacka A. Szweda-Lewandowska Z, Puchała M. Can melatonin delay oxidative damage of human erythrocytes during prolonged incubation? (2013) Adv. Med. Sci. 58(1), 134-142.
  13. Rodacka A., Serafin E., Bubinski M., Krokosz A., Puchala M. The influence of oxygen on radiation-induced structural and functional changes in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase. Radiation Physics and Chemistry 81 (2012) 807–815.
  14. Rodacka A., Serafin E., Puchala M. Efficiency of superoxide anions in the inactivation of selected dehydrogenases., Radiation Physics and Chemistry 79 (2010) 960–965.
  15. Grebowski J and Krokosz A. Fullerenes in radiobiology (in Polish). Postepy Biochem. 56(4) (2010) 456-462
  16. Krokosz A., Komorowska M., Szweda-Lewandowska Z. Radiation damage to human erythrocytes. Relative contribution of hydroxyl and chloride radicals in N2O-saturated buffers. Radiat. Phys. Chem. (2008) 77(6), 775-780.
  17. Krokosz A, Rodacka A, Szweda-Lewandowska Z, Puchała M. The influence of selected alcohols on ROS-initiated damage of human erythrocytes.: in „Biological Membranes”, Eds. J. Gabrielska and P. Misiak, 2008, 225-228, ISBN 978-83-926758-0-8.
  18. Kowalczyk A, Serafin E, Puchała M. Inactivation of chosen dehydrogenases by the products of water radiolysis and secondary albumin and haemoglobin radicals. Int. J. Radiat. Biol., (2008) Vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 15 – 22.
  19. Krokosz A. Fullerenes in biology (in Polish). Postepy Biochem. (2007) 53(1) 91-96.
  20. Kowalczyk A, Puchala M, Wesolowska K, Serafin E. Inactivation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) by ferryl derivatives of human hemoglobin. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1774 (2007) 86-92.
  21. Krokosz A, Szweda-Lewandowska Z. Induction of transient radioresistance in human erythrocytes. Radiat. Phys. Chem., (2006) 75, 967-976.
  22. Sztiller M, Puchala M, Kowalczyk A, Bartosz G. The influence of ferrylhemoglobin and methemoglobin on the human erythrocyte membrane. Redox Report (2006); 11 (6), pp. 263-271(9).


Examples of M.Sc. thesis titles:

  1. The influence of fullerenol C60(OH)26-33 on human erythrocytes.
  2. The effect of nitric oxide on the activity and structure of GAPDH and LDH.
  3. The influence of resveratrol on neuroblastoma cells (Neuro-2a) and hippocampal cells (mHippoE-18) under oxidative stress.
  4. The influence of fullerenol C60(OH)26-33 on human mononuclear blood cells.
  5. Effect of resveratrol and its derivatives on the function and structure of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
  6. The influence of melatonin on radiation-induced damage to human erythrocytes. .

Examples of B.Sc. thesis titles:

  1. The multifunctional nature of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase - role in neurodegeneration disorders.
  2. The significance of post-translational modifications of proteins.
  3. Applications of fullerene C60 and its derivatives in biology and medicine.
  4. Biological and potential therapeutic roles of sirtuins in neurodegenerative diseases.
  5. Applications of fullerene and its derivatives in cancer therapy.
  6. Impact of carbon nanostructures on aquatic ecosystem.

Books for students:

Alpen E.L – Radiation Biophysics. Academic Press, 1998.

von Sonntag, C. – The Chemical Basis of Radiation Biology. Taylor&Francis, 1987.

Aldersey-Williams H. - The Most Beautiful Molecule: The Discovery of the Buckyball. John Wiley & Sons, 1997.

Hrynkiewicz A.Z. (Ed) – Człowiek i promieniowanie jonizujące. PWN, 2001

Jóźwiak Z., Bartosz G. (Eds) – Biofizyka. Wybrane zagadnienia z ćwiczeniami. PWN, 2008

Szczepaniak W.- Metody instrumentalne w analizie chemicznej. PWN, 1997.

Krysicki W., Włodarski L. – Analiza matematyczna w zadaniach, PWN, od 1970‑.

K. Dobrowolska, W. Dyczka, H. Jakuszenkow – Matematyka, t. 0, 1, 2, HELPMATH (former Wyd. PŁ), Łódź, 2008.

Bryszewska M., Leyko W. (Eds) ‑ Biofizyka dla biologów, PWN, 1997.

Jóźwiak Z., Bartosz G. (Eds.) - Biofizyka. Wybrane zagadnienia wraz z ćwiczeniami. PWN, 2008.

Bartosz G. - Druga twarz tlenu. Wolne rodniki w przyrodzie, PWN, 2003.

Jaroszyk F. (Ed) - Biofizyka, PZWL, 2008.


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